Cooperative Status in the Constitution of I.R. of Iran
To guarantee economic independence, to root out poverty and deprivation and to meet people’s needs in the course of development, while preserving self-determination and autonomy, the economy of Islamic Republic of Iran is based on the following provisions:
1- To ensure basic human needs such as housing, food, clothing, health and treatment, education and training, and required facilities for all to establish a family.
2- To ensure work conditions and facilities for all in order to attain full decent employment and to provide means of occupation for those who are able to work but lack job tools, in the form of cooperatives, through provision of interest-free loans or other legitimate ways that would neither result in centralization and accumulation of wealth by certain individuals or groups, nor making government an absolute super employer. It should be accomplished through respecting exigencies of national economy general planning at each and every phase of growth.
3- To adopt national economic plan in such a way that the work shape, contents and hours enable an individual to enjoy sufficient opportunities and aptitude for spiritual, political and social self-building, dynamic participation in social leadership, and expanding skills and initiatives, apart from his or her personal career activities.
4- To respect freedom for job choice, not forcing individuals to a definite task or exploiting others’ job.
5- To prohibit incurring losses by others, monopoly, hoarding or usury and other unlawful and false transactions.
6- To prohibit squandering and improvidence in all aspects of economy, including consumption, investment, production, distribution and services.
7- To utilize science and technology and to train skilled manpower as needed for development of national economy.
8- To avoid foreign economic supremacy over national economy.
9- To emphasize on boosting agricultural, livestock and industrial productions for public interests, aiming at country’s self-sufficiency and independence.
The economic system of Islamic Republic of Iran is founded on three major basis of public, cooperative and private sectors.
Public sector includes all major industries, mother industries, foreign commerce, big mines, banking, insurance, power supply, dams and major water supply networks, TV and radio, post and telephone, aviation, shipping, roads and railways, and so on, possessed by the government as public properties. Cooperative sector includes production and distribution cooperative societies and enterprises, established in rural and urban areas, based on Islamic criteria. Private sector includes those parts of farming, industry, trade and services that complement public and cooperative economic activities. Ownership in the three sectors is encouraged by national law to such an extent that is compatible to other Articles of the same chapter of law, within the framework of Islamic regulations, ensuring economic growth and development, and not working to the detriment of society. Further details and interpretation of legal provisions, scope of activity and conditions of the three sectors are defined by the law.